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Net Houses Effects on Microclimate, Production, and Plant Protection of White-fleshed Pitaya

To evaluate the comprehensive response of commercial cultivation of the white-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus undatus ‘VN White’) under net house in Taiwan, experiments were conducted during the natural reproductive period (from June to Sept. 2016) with fruits grown within net houses (either 16 or 24 mesh insect-proof netting, without fruit bagging) or in an open field (the control, without netting, with fruit bagging). The effects of netting on microclimate, phenological period, flowering (floral bud emergence) of current and noncurrent cladodes (shoots) (2- to 3-year-old), fruit quality, market acceptability, pests and diseases control, and level of sunburn were investigated. Indoor solar radiation in the 16 and 24 mesh net houses were 78.12% and 75.03%, respectively, and the sunlight intensities [photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), μmol·m−2·s−1] were 76.03% and 73.00%, respectively, that of control. The maximum daily temperature for the 16 and 24 mesh net houses was greater than that of the control. However, there were no significant differences in daily average temperature, minimum temperature, or relative humidity (RH). The first flowering cycle (12 June 2016) and last flowering cycle (11 Sept. 2016) in both net houses were the same as those in the control. The accumulative flowering of current cladodes was unaffected by net covering, but that of noncurrent-year cladodes in both net houses was lower than that in the control. Although the L* and C* values of fruit color in the 16 and 24 mesh net houses were lower than those in the control, the fruits still had commercial value. The average fruit weight of the 16 mesh net house was significantly greater than that of the control. Average total soluble solid (TSS) content, TSS content at the fruit center, and titratable acidity were unaffected. In addition, the 16 mesh net house blocked some large pests without exacerbating disease or sunburn. Our findings suggest that 16 mesh net houses may be useful for white-fleshed pitaya cultivation during its natural reproductive period in subtropical Taiwan.

Dietary dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) peel powder improved in vitro rumen fermentation and gas production kinetics

Plant phytophenols especially condensed tannins (CT) and saponins (SP) have been demonstrated to impact on rumen fermentation. Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) peel powder (DFPP) contains both CT and SP. The current study aimed to investigate the influence of DFPP and varying levels of concentrate and roughage ratios on gas production kinetics, nutrient degradability, and methane production “using in vitro gas production technique.” The dietary treatments were arranged according to a 3 × 5 Factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. The two experimental factors consisted of the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio (100:0, 70:30, and 30:70) and the levels of DFPP supplementation (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% of the substrate) on DM basis. The results revealed that the R:C ratio at 30:70 had the highest cumulative gas production when compared to other ratios (P < 0.01). The in vitro true dry matter degradability at 12 and 24 h was affected by R:C ratio (P < 0.01). Furthermore, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and propionate (C3) were significantly increased by the levels of DFPP, while acetate (C2) and C2:C3 ratios were decreased (P < 0.05). The rumen protozoal population was significantly decreased by DFPP supplementation (P < 0.05). Rumen methane production was significantly impacted by R:C ratios and decreased when the level of DFPP increased (P < 0.01), while NH3-N and ruminal pH were not influenced by the DFPP supplement. It could be summarized that supplementation of DFPP resulted in improved rumen fermentation kinetics and could be used as a dietary source to mitigate rumen methane production, hence reducing greenhouse gas production.

Dissipation pattern of azoxystrobin and difenoconazole in red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) cultivated in Indonesian highland (West Java) and coastal area (D.I. Jogyakarta) and its implication for dietary risk assessment

Cultivation of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) in Indonesian orchards is hampered by anthracnose and stem canker. A mixture of azoxystrobin 200 g/L + difenoconazole 125 g/L is recommended in supporting the obligated integrated pest management. For the consumer safety, dietary intake of the residues from fresh edible part should be assessed; therefore, information on correct dissipation pattern of the applied pesticide is required.
Materials and Methods
Field residue trials in Indonesian highland (West Java) and coastal area (Special Region of Yogyakarta) were done at recommended dose was 0.151 kg ai/ha azoxystrobin and 0.094 kg ai/ha difenoconazole, three times at 10 days interval. Whole fruit samples were collected at 70%–100% ripeness at −1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days after last application, processed and determined its residue as soon as possible.
Result and Discussion
Photoisomerization of azoxystrobin was observed at Day 0, especially in coastal area; however, it has been dissipated to below lowest validated level in the following day. At Day 0, 3%–5% of the deposited azoxystrobin and difenoconazole penetrate into the flesh; however, most residues (95%–97%) were retained in peel, and dissipated in prolonged day. The dissipation pattern was non-linear. The dissipation data were better fit with bi-exponential double-first-order in parallel than single first-order kinetics model. The DT50 of both azoxystrobin and difenoconazole was 3 days. At harvest time, seventh day, only azoxystrobin residue was detected in flesh at 0.006 mg/kg; therefore, the long-term dietary risk was 0 per cent acceptable daily intake.
Fresh red dragon fruit is safe to consume.


Menstrual pain, or medical dysmenorrhea, is pain in the lower abdomen during menstruation and can also be felt on the hips, lower back, or thighs. The pain is convulsive (convulsions), which are felt by some women at the beginning of menstruation. Dysmenorrhoea can also be overcome non-pharmacologically, which can naturally reduce the intensity of the pain. This research is an experimental analytical research that is a research on the level of naturalness (setting) where research is in addition to survey research and naturalistic (qualitative). Essentially, experimental research is to examine the effect of the treatment on the behavior that results from the treatment. This study was conducted to determine the intensity of menstrual pain after eating dragon fruit skin juice. The first 3 months focused on reducing the intensity of pain after eating dragon fruit skin juice with a composition of 100 grams of dragon fruit skin mixed with sugar and enough water. The second 3 months focused on reducing the intensity of pain after eating dragon fruit skin juice with a composition of 200 grams of dragon fruit skin mixed with sugar and sufficient water. The third 3 months focused on reducing the intensity of pain after eating dragon fruit skin juice with a composition of 100 grams of dragon fruit skin mixed with milk and sufficient water. In addition, the study also received information on how to reduce the intensity of menstrual pain by applying non-pharmacological techniques by using dragon fruit

Dragon fruit -An advanced potential crop for Northeast India

Dragon fruit or Pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus) also known as “The Wonderous Fruit” of the 21st century belongs to Cactaceae family and is known to be originally native to a region including Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador and northern South America. Its cultivation is widespread in Southeast Asia, Florida, the Caribbean and subtropical world region. Although it is commercially cultivated in other countries, it has not attained commercial cultivation status in India. It is one of the newly emerged fruit crop in India.

Applications Various Extracts of Plant On Stem Growth Response of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

This study aims to determine the response of the growth of red dragon fruit stem cuttings (Hylocereus polyrhizus) with the treatment of various plant extracts and dosage of goat manure. This research was conducted in experimental garden of UMM. This research was conducted from October 2017 until January 2018. The study used a randomized block design, which was repeated 3 times with 2 factors. Factor 1 is a kind of plant extract and factor 2 is the dosage of manure. Factor 1 consists of 4 level, while factor 2 that consists of 3 level. Observation parameters include: Shoots, shoot number, shoot length, root length, root number, total wet weight, shoot dry weight, wet root weight, and root dry weight. The results showed that the treatment of green bean sprout extract and dose 187.5 g / polybag showed the best result on the number of shoot and wet weight of cuttings. Treatment of green bean sprout extract showed relatively good results. Treatment of fertilizer doses of 187.5 g / polybag showed relatively good results.


Common cold or non-specific upper respiratory infection (ISPA) or "common cold" is an infectious disease caused by a virus and attacks the upper respiratory tract (nose). This disease is commonly experienced by children to adults. Viruses that cause Common Cold such as coronavirus and rhinovirus. Common cold can be overcome by pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy. One of the non-pharmacological therapies to overcome the initial symptoms of common cold by consuming processed red dragon fruit skin, jelly candy. The purpose of this study was to know the effect of the composition of the making of Hylocereus Polyrhizus leather jelly in organoleptic and acceleration of healing of common cold symptoms in toddlers. The design of this study was Quasi experiment with one-group pretest-posttest design. The sample in this study were children aged 1-5 years who experienced a common cold, which was as many as 10 children. Organoleptic test results for jelly candies based on a test of color, taste and texture preferences found in jelly candies treatments 3 and 4 (T3 & T4). The content of Vitamin C in T4 (10% dragon fruit skin composition) is greater than T3 (Composition of dragon fruit skin 15%) which is 1.57> 1.24 mg / 100g and there is an effect of accelerating the recovery of common cold symptoms in infants.

Studies on ready to serve (RTS) beverage from dragon fruit

The present study attempted to develop a RTS beverage using dragon fruit. Preliminary investigations were carried out based on the standards specified for RTS fruit drinks to develop a suitable recipe. RTS beverages were prepared containing four levels of dragon fruit juice (8%, 10%, 12% and 14%), citric acid (0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%) with 12 per cent sugar and 0.01 per cent potassium Meta bisulphite. Sensory evaluation was conducted using 25 untrained panelists to determine the best juice concentration to develop the RTS. Proportion with 12 per cent dragon fruit juice and 0.4 per cent citric acid was selected as the best level for the development of dragon fruit ready to serve beverage. Storage study for analysis of acidity, TSS, ascorbic acid and pH from 0 to 50 days was investigated for the prepared beverage at a regular interval of ten days. A slight increase in acidity and TSS and decrease in pH and ascorbic acid in samples stored at room temperature was observed.


Proper watering system will increase plant growth. Water become important part of dragon fruits growth, it should be fullfilled and controlled. A village with soil characteristic mostly hilly topography, dry, less of water, rocky, and limited plant (dry plant only) need special treatment for being a planting land. But it has some local wisdom exists, the most popular are dragon fruits. A drip irrigation system is applied as an innovation of watering plants method. Water distribute through capillary tube, driply through the plant and controlled, called drip irrigation system. The aim of this reseach to explain the use of  drip irrigation system on dragon fruit plant. Observation and experimental studies has conducted, the community considers drip irrigation as a new technology, presentations show that it is suitable to be applied in their area. This implementation able to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of irrigation through dragon fruits in the village. Futhermore, the implementation of this technology can be used as a real work example to build a better Indonesia.
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